3.5 Explain the Sorts of Behaviour or Discipline Problems That Should Be Referred to Others and to Whom These

Unit. 4

Promote Children and Young People Positive Behavior

Understand policies and procedures for promoting children and young people??™s positive behavior.

1.1 Summaries the policies and procedures of the setting relevant to promoting children and young people??™s positive behavior.

Schools take the promotion of positive behavior quite seriously. This is reflected in many policies, which are in place in every school. All staff work hard to help children to maintain high standards of behaviour. This is important so that they can use their time in school effectively to learn and others do not disrupt that learning. Schools actively encourage and promote good behaviour which is rewarded in a variety of ways such house points, certificates, stickers, praise from other teachers etc. Children also understand that poor behaviour is not acceptable. School have a clear set of behaviour consequences such as if a child is disruptive: question them on their behaviour; a warning if inappropriate behaviour continues; a consequence if child chooses not to heed warning.? Listed below is a brief summary of some of the policies and procedures in place of particular setting:
Behaviour policy – in order for effective learning to take place, good behaviour in all aspects of school life is necessary. By sticking to this policy we aim to recognise and promote positive behaviour and in doing so ?  will help to promote self-esteem, self-discipline and build positive relationships based on mutual respect. The policy is not only aimed at pupils but to all who are in involved in the school community from parents to governors to staff and so on, in order to be able to apply it consistently.? 

Code of conduct – all actions concerning children and young people must uphold the best interests of the young person as a primary consideration. Staff must always be mindful of the fact that they hold a position of trust, and that their behaviour towards the children and young people in their charge must be above reproach.

Rewards and sanctions ??“ when a behavior is inappropriate school set a scale of sanctions in order to promote and encourage positive behavior. These sanction could be such as, miss one minute or longer playtime, time out, be sent to the deputy head or head teacher, report to the parents etc. Thus, school should give a clear indication of the procedures used while dealing with inappropriate behavior and using sanctions and rewards. When the positive behavior is achieved schools rewards pupils by giving certificate by the head teacher.

Dealing with conflict and inappropriate behavior (positive handling) ??“ usually schools policy will not give you certain guide on how to handle or manage behavior. Thus, it is important that if children do not comply with the school regulation and policies they should be prepare to keep responsibility for their actions.

Anti-bullying – Bullying is one of the biggest issues that schools face in the classroom and the figures shows that most of the verbal bullying takes place in school premises. There are certain forms of bullying such as verbal, physical and emotional. Sometimes verbal bullying is seen as being less serious than physical bullying but in fact any form of bullying can cause damaging and have impact on young individual confidence and self-esteem to that point that the child refuse to go to school. There are different ways that schools deals with bullying such as no-blame approach, peer counselling, restorative justice and circle time. Most of schools in UK have an anti-bullying policy in place in order to provide protection for pupils against abuse and harassment.

Attendance ??“ truancy is big issue for schools and to manage the issue schools have set the attendance policy to deal with it. Attendance of the students is monitored closely and if the pupils make effort to keep it up schools reward them with certificate to appraise their efforts.

1.2 Evaluate how the policies and procedures of the setting support children and young people to: feel safe, make a positive contribution, develop social and emotional skills and understand expectations and limits.

Schools take their policies quite seriously in order to maintain discipline, safeguarding and inclusion of all the children. In order to make the pupils feel safe schools have the safeguarding policy such as having a safe learning environment, where it is okay to talk and children and young people will be listened to; where learners feel safe in a secure environment; where they do not endure bullying, racism or sexual harassment; where medical needs are met.

Support children and young people positive behavior | Policies |
Feel safe | Safeguarding policy |
Make a positive contribution | Equality policy, Positive handling |
Develop social and emotional skills | Bullying policy, Behavior policy |
Understand expectations and limits | Code of conduct and rules |
Safeguarding policy:

Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined in ???Working Together to Safeguard Children??™, DCSF 2010 as:
Protecting children from maltreatment
Preventing impairment of children??™s health or development
Ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; and
Undertaking that role so as to enable those children to have optimum life chances and to enter adulthood successfully
Safeguarding children and young people and promoting their well-being is therefore more than just child protection. In order to safeguard children and young people and ensure their personal development, we will have safeguarding at the heart of our purpose.
Encourage discussion about safeguarding amongst staff & volunteers
Report all health & safety issues without delay
Keep students safe and protect them from physical, sexual and emotional harm
Look after yourself
Treat everyone with respect
Provide a positive example you wish others to follow
Work with another appropriate adult in all planned activities whenever possible
Risk assess all situations when you are working alone with a student and make sure you are seen and/or heard by others
Respect peoples??™ right to personal privacy
Create an environment in which people feel comfortable in pointing out attitudes and behaviors they don??™t like
Report and challenge all inappropriate and/or abusive activities, such as ridicule, bullying and discrimination
Familiarize yourself with your school code of conduct
Report any gifts you receive & ensure they are not of significant value or intention
Give gifts to students only as part of an agreed reward system
Follow procedures for reporting all allegations against staff, careers and volunteers (Oct 06)

Positive handling

Positive Handling Policy
This policy sets out the framework for the use of reasonable force or positive handling, but it must be clearly understood that this should always be set within the school??™s overall behavior management framework and is only used as a last resort under-pinned by sound risk assessment. Providing successful inclusion may necessitate physical restraint but only as one of the strategies available for the management of challenging behavior. Only in the event of failure of clearly defined protocols to bring control to the situation, or imminent danger to persons, should positive handling be considered.
Legislation that came into force on 1.9.98 (Section 550 of the Education Act 1996) together with national guidance (DfES Circular 10/98), establishes the power of teachers and other staff to use reasonable force if required. This applies to all occasions when that member of staff is in charge of children both on and off school premises. There is no legal definition of reasonable force; this would depend on the individual circumstances of each case. Only a court may judge what is reasonable in terms of the amount of force used in physical handling and obviously does so retrospectively. Reasonable force would not include any of the following:
??? Holding a child around the neck, collar or other way that may restrict breathing
??? Slapping, punching, kicking or tripping a child and holding or pulling a child by their hair or ear
??? Twisting or forcing limbs against joints.
??? Indecently touching or holding
??? Holding a child face down on the ground
??? Lifting a child off the floor in order to intimidate

Bullying policy, Behavior policy
The aim of this anti-bullying policy is to ensure that pupils learn in a supportive, caring and safe environment without fear of being bullied. Bullying is anti-social behavior and affects everyone; it is unacceptable and will not be tolerated. Only when all issues of bullying are addressed will pupils be able to fully benefit from the opportunities available at schools. ???Bullying is defined as deliberately hurtful behavior, repeated over a period of time, where it is difficult for those being bullied to defend themselves??? (Taken from the Teacher net Website).
The three main types of bullying are:
Physical (hitting, kicking, theft)
Verbal (name calling, racist remarks)
Indirect (spreading rumors, excluding someone from social groups)

Pupils who are being bullied may show changes in behavior, such as becoming shy and nervous, feigning illness, taking unusual absences or clinging to adults. There may be evidence of changes in work patterns, lacking concentration or truanting from school. Pupils must be encouraged to report bullying in schools.
Schools teaching and ancillary staff must be alert to the signs of bullying and act promptly and firmly against it in accordance with school policy.
Statutory duty of schools
Head teachers have a legal duty under the School Standards and Framework Act 1998 to draw up procedures to prevent bullying among pupils and to bring these procedures to the attention of staff, parents and pupils.
Implementation
Schools
The following steps may be taken when dealing with incidents:
If bullying is suspected or reported, the incident will be dealt with immediately? by the member of staff who has been approached
A clear account of the incident will be recorded and given to the head teacher
The head teacher will interview all concerned and will record the incident
Class teachers will be kept informed and if it persists will advise the appropriate subject teachers
Parents will be kept informed
Sanctions will be used as appropriate and in consultation will all parties concerned
Pupils

Monitoring, evaluation and review
The school will review this policy annually and assess its implementation and effectiveness. The policy will be promoted and implemented throughout the school.
Equality policy
???Tottenhall Infant School??? we do not discriminate against anyone, be they staff or pupil, on the grounds of their sex, disability, age, race, colour, religion and nationality, ethnic or national origins. This is in line with the 1976 Race Relations Act, the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 and the inclusion guidance at the beginning of the National Curriculum which covers both direct and indirect discrimination.
We promote the principles of fairness and justice for all through the education that we provide in our school.
We ensure that all pupils have equal access to the full range of educational opportunities provided by the school.
We constantly strive to remove any forms of indirect discrimination that may form barriers to learning.
We ensure that all recruitment, employment, promotion and training systems are fair to all, and provide opportunities for everyone to achieve.
We challenge stereotyping and prejudice whenever it occurs.
We celebrate the cultural diversity of our community and show respect for all minority groups.
We are aware that prejudice and stereotyping is caused by low self-image and ignorance. Through positive educational experiences and support for each individual??™s point of view, we aim to promote positive social attitudes and respect for all.
Anti-racism
It is the right of all pupils to receive the best education the school can provide, with access to all educational activities organised by the school. We do not tolerate any forms of racism or racist behaviour. Should a racist incident occur, we will act immediately to prevent any repetition of the incident.
We endeavour to make our school welcoming to all minority groups. So, for example, we will immediately remove any offensive graffiti that we may find in school. We promote an understanding of different cultures through the topics studied by the children, and we reflect this in the displays of work shown around the school.
Curriculum reflects the attitudes, values and respect that we have for minority ethnic groups. So, for example, in the religious education curriculum topic on religious festivals, the children study the importance of Diwali to Hindus and Sikhs. Should anyone at our school be a victim of racism, we will do all we can to support that person in overcoming any difficulties they may have.

Code of conduct and rules

Parents and guardians of new pupils are requested to ensure that their children have read and understood this document before they join the School. These guidelines and rules exist to enable the School to be a purposeful, happy and? welcoming society where each member of the community can fulfil their potential. Any anti-social behaviour, breach of good manners or of common sense will be taken as a breach of the School rules (Code of Conduct). Pupils should conduct themselves in a manner which is a credit to themselves and the School, and which, in the judgement of staff, causes no embarrassment to others. The School rules apply to all pupils from the time they leave home for school up to their return home. They also apply on School coaches, trips and expeditions organised by the School.
Conduct:? Pupils must behave sensibly at all times, including in the streets and public places. They should show regard and consideration for others at all times, particularly when using public transport. They should address members of staff courteously. They will accept the authority of the staff at all times and that of School prefects and duty prefects. Naturally, they may not use foul language to each other or to anyone else in the School. Pupils have a responsibility to show patience, respect and understanding to all members of the School community. The School will not tolerate attempts by individuals or groups to make life miserable for other pupils nor any form of sexual or racial harassment. It is a basic entitlement of all pupils to receive their education free from humiliation, oppression, vindictiveness and personal abuse. Any incident of bullying, including cyber-bullying should be brought to the attention of a member of staff. Laser pens, knives or other weapons may not be brought in to School.
1.3 Explain the benefits of all staff consistently and fairly applying boundaries and rules for children and young people??™s behavior in accordance with the policies and procedures of the setting.

Pupils will be expected to take responsibility for their own behavior on or off the school site and will be made fully aware of the school policy procedure and expectations. Pupils also have a responsibility to ensure that incidents of disruption, violence, bullying and any form of harassment are reported. If all the school members will use the same principles and strategies when managing behavior, then it is likely that children will respond to positively to this boundaries and rules. Children need to know what is expected from them and school boundaries because by knowing the scale of rewards and sanctions these will encourage good behavior management and support a positive learning environment.

Rewards
A school ethos of encouragement is central to the promotion of good behavior. Rewards are one means of achieving this. They have a motivated role in helping pupils to realize that good behavior is valued, and are clearly defined in the procedures. Integral to the system of rewards is an emphasis on praise both informal and formal to individuals and groups.

Sanctions
Sanctions are needed to respond to inappropriate behavior. A range of sanctions are clearly defined in the procedures and their use will be characterized by clarity as to why the sanction is being applied and what changes in behavior are required to avoid future sanctions. There is a clear distinction between the sanctions applied for minor and major offences.
2. Be able to promote positive behavior.

2.1 Explain the benefits of actively promoting positive behavior.

It is very important for teacher assistant to be able to promote and recognize positive behavior of pupils. There are certain ways to promote positive behavior such as, being ware when pupils behave well and try hard, using recognition like merit marks, listen to the pupils on important issues, appraise model behavior, being able to build trust with pupils to maintain positive relationships and most importantly is ensuring that pupils know why they are being rewarded. In the place where I work as teacher assistant challenging behavior are faced everyday. Most of the time when I give instruction to the children to tidy up there are children who do not respond, so what I do I praise the children who are doing well in order for the other children to follow the same behavior. It is quite amassing how the recognizing of appropriate behavior will promote positive behavior to the pupils. Positive praise is a very powerful tool when managing behavior. As adults, we need to notice the positive as much as we can, because it can be human nature and easier for us to notice and comment on the negative. Commenting on the negative brings the child down and makes them feel that they are only getting attention when they do something they shouldn??™t. Children respond straight away to positive comments and any acknowledgement that we have noticed them. Also make sure that you are clear about what you are praising, rather than assuming that the child knows.

It is important to notice positive behavior at all times-including politeness and good manners. Keep an eye out for additional ideas, for example a ???friendliness wall??? which invites pupils to share friendly things people have done for them or a ???kindness box??? in which pupils can post a note to tell others when someone has been kind to them. As a professional in any setting, I need to be fully aware of the way in which I can interact and behave with pupils in my care and the implications of this. Making sure that I am friendly but firm with them, while knowing that both of these approaches have limits. If you are too friendly, pupils will not understand that there are boundaries that they need to obey to, and may not respect my authority. If you are too firm with pupils, there may be issues around child protection. Other adults??™ interactions affect the responses of pupils. We have a responsibility to show to pupils??™ a role model and respect for each other by promoting:

Appropriate behavior
Behavior that demonstrates the child is respected and valued.
Noticing when pupils are behaving well.
Ensure why pupils know why are being rewarded.
Build trust with all pupils and maintain positive relationships.
Use class as well as whole school systems and devise them together with the pupils
Be clear if you told pupils off exactly why you are reprimanding them.
Make sure you tell pupils that it is their behave that is bad, not them.
Catch them being good as soon as you can afterwards.

During various times a lot of studies were done about behavior by different theorist such as (B. F. Skinner, 1940). According, to (Skinner, 1940) children will respond to praise and so will repeat behavior that gives recognition or praise. This theory gave a big help to support parents and schools in promoting positive behavior.

Case study: Using sanctions and rewards

In the lesson we were presented with a case study. The case was about three boys in year 3 and they had to decorate an Easter egg and when a young girl volunteered to help the boys that were struggling to get the work done the young girl Cheryl offered to help the boys were not welcome they replayed to the help offered with inappropriate behavior. The teacher of the class was preoccupied so the teacher assistant handled the situation by giving as punishment by taking away the merits earn by them that week. However, only two of the boys involved had merits.

The first thing that I noticed when I read the case was the boys struggling to complete the task lead them to the noise and then to inappropriate behavior. If help were offered to them before by explaining more on how to complete the task then it would have been easier to finish it with success. The other thing was the way the situation was handled by the teacher assistant because first she rushed in solving it quick without analyzing it before the reasons behind the behavior and secondly she was not fare on the sanction that were given to the boys. She should had considered the age and the stage of development of the children when dealing with the behavior and it would have been useful if she would have given the boys an example of appropriate behavior of other pupils as role model so they could follow it.

References.

School policies of primary school, (2011) available at: http://www.eastchurch.kent.sch.uk/

Department of Education, (2012) available at: http://www.education.gov.uk/schools

Pages:
Edit